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Smiling Kid
Draft proposed by Dr Annie Fok
Reviewed by Dr S P Wu

Essential Skills

Domain 1 Professional Values & Behaviour

Domain 3 Procedural skills (detection of red reflex)

Domain 4 Patient Management

Additional desirable skills are listed in each proposal. These recommended skills are to be acquired as opportunity arises

Basic Training

Common eye problems

Manage common paediatric eye conditions such as nasolacrimal duct obstruction, chalazia, hordeolum, epiblepharon

Approach to epiphora and allergic conjunctivitis



Detection of cataract

Common causes of cataract

Childhood glaucoma

Detection of glaucoma

Intraocular mass and tumour

Detection of intraocular mass

Differential diagnosis of intraocular mass, particularly retinoblastoma


Optic neuritis

Detection of relative afferent pupillary defect


Paediatric retinal conditions

Recognise the staging, screening methods and management of retinopathy of prematurity ROP

Retinal detachment

Eye infection

Common causes and management of conjunctivitis, blepharitis, peri-orbital and orbital cellulitis

Strabismus and diplopia

Common causes of strabismus and diplopia

Evaluation of strabismus



Common causes of ptosis

Evaluation of ptosis


Delayed visual behaviour and visual impairment

Approach to children with delayed visual behaviour and visual impairment

Understand different types of common refractive errors and amblyopia

Recognise common causes of visual impairment and cortical visual impairment

Desirable skills 

  1. Bedside fundoscopic examination – use of direct ophthalmoscope     

  2. Use of Snellen Chart for visual acuity testing

  3. Use of Ishihara Chart for colour vision testing

Higher Training


Common causes of nystagmus and its associated features.

The need to investigate for visual acuity and ocular abnormality



Neurological causes of incomitant squints

Ocular manifestations of systemic diseases

Recognise and collaborate in managing the ocular manifestations in systemic diseases:

  • Genetic and chromosomal abnormalities

  • Metabolic disorders such as IEM, hyperthyroidism

  • Craniofacial anomalies

  • Rheumatological and inflammatory disorders

  • Phakomatoses

  • Neuroblastoma

Recognise retinal changes and ocular findings in shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma

Visual impairment and blindness

Understand the genetic of hereditary and non-hereditary conditions that causes visual impairment, particularly Usher syndrome and retinitis pigmentosa

Desirable skills 

  1. Prescribing mydriatics for eye examination

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